by Brian DeChesare Comments (99)

How to Prepare for Investment Banking Summer Internship Recruiting

Investment Banking Summer Internship Recruiting
This revised and updated article is mostly a reality check.

If you’re wondering why I’m publishing an article about “summer internship recruiting” in February, then you haven’t been paying attention to recruiting.

In the U.S., summer internship recruiting at many banks now begins and ends over a year in advance of internships.

Some large banks have already opened their applications within the past week.

And within the next few months, a lot of recruiting for summer 2019 internships at major banks will be done.

This move to hyper-accelerated recruiting is ridiculous, especially since most 2nd-year university students have no idea what they want to do.

But ridiculous behavior defines the finance industry, so you have to deal with it and survive.

Here’s what it means for your timeline, preparation, and strategy:

Why Does Hyper-Accelerated Recruiting Matter?

This change matters because summer internships are the best – and sometimes only – way to receive full-time investment banking offers.

A summer internship is effectively an 8-10-week interview at a bank, and it’s the best way for a bank to assess your performance.

If you miss recruiting season and, therefore, miss a summer internship, you are screwed.

Occasionally you can win a full-time offer without a summer internship, but the odds are strongly against you.

Much earlier start dates have also changed other important points:

1) Your GPA Will Become More Important, So Maximize “Easy A” Classes in Your First 1-2 Years

You’ll have less experience by the time you apply for summer internships, so banks will judge you more based on grades, test scores, and the brand name of your university.

You can’t do much about the last two, but you can game the system to boost your GPA.

You should make every effort to take easy classes to boost your grades in your first 1-2 years and save the harder ones for your last few years.

At my university, language classes were easy A’s, and I used them to offset lower grades in engineering/computer science classes.

Figure out the loopholes at your university and exploit them!

2) If You’re a Transfer Student, You’re Kind of Screwed

Transferring to a better university to improve your recruiting chances is now a much worse strategy.

Transferring between your second and third year makes no sense because you’ll completely miss summer internship recruiting.

Transferring after your first year might be a bit better, but recruiting will still be tough because you won’t have as much time to network with alumni or join student groups.

So, if you’re transferring only to win an IB internship, you might want to reconsider.

3) If You’re at a Non-Target School, You’re Also Kind of Screwed

There’s much less awareness of investment banking and private equity and the recruiting timelines at non-target schools, and the “career centers” there are completely clueless.

So, if you’re at a non-target school and you did not start preparing for IB by the beginning of your second year, you’ll probably have to use a different strategy to get in.

For example, maybe you’ll have to apply for wealth management or corporate banking roles, start working full-time in one of those, and then make a lateral move into IB.

4) Internships After Your First Year, School-Year Internships, and “Upcoming” Internships After Your Second Year Will Become More Important

A long time ago, what you did after your first year of university didn’t matter much because banks focused on second-year internships.

But those days are long gone.

Now, you’re pretty much going to need a finance-related internship after your first year because you won’t have much else to write about on your resume.

And the recruiting process will favor students who line up second-year internships far in advance because they’ll be able to write “Upcoming Finance-Related Summer Internship” on their resumes.

5) Networking via Student Groups Will Be More Useful

With the new timeline, it will be tougher to make multiple weekend trips to NY and build relationships with alumni before interviews begin.

As a result, you’ll have to rely more on student groups, investing clubs, and business fraternities to build connections and get help from older students.

How to Prepare: Your Timeline and Strategy

If you are even vaguely interested in investment banking, you must start preparing for it in your first year of university.

I would suggest this rough timeline:

Step 1: Your First Year in University

Start by picking a major related to finance or something that can be used for other jobs if you don’t win finance job offers (e.g., accounting, computer science, engineering, etc.).

Then, front-load your schedule with easier classes in your first year.

You don’t need to earn perfect grades, but you want to come as close as possible.

Participate in activities that will help you network your way into a finance role: The student investment club, the business frat, or a series of investing or case competitions.

Over the summer, aim for finance-related internships. You probably won’t be able to win an actual investment banking internship, but you might find something in corporate finance at a local company, or perhaps an internship at a boutique PE/VC firm.

Other options would be wealth management, anything in real estate, or something at a Big 4 firm or an independent valuation firm.

There is no set process to apply for these internships, so your approach will be: “Find companies and peoples’ names on LinkedIn, email or call them, and repeat until you find something.”

Step 2: The Summer After Your First Year

This is when you complete your first finance-related internship.

You should also start learning the technical side (accounting, valuation, and transaction modeling) and networking with alumni by setting up informational interviews.

You do not need to devote a lot of time to these efforts. If your internship has normal hours, you could target ~10 hours per week for networking + technical prep.

That might equate to 3-4 informational interviews per week and several hours of tutorials and practice exercises.

You learn best by doing, so don’t just read books, guides, or quick references from our courses: Take real companies and build simple projections and valuations for them.

This summer is also a good time to develop an interesting hobby or experience that you can reference in interviews.

Take something small, such as a week-long trip or volunteer project, and spin it into sounding more significant.

Step 3: The First Half of Your Second Year

You’ll continue networking with alumni and preparing for the technical questions in this period.

You should also start conducting weekend trips to New York or the major financial center closest to you.

One trip is good, and two are better, but once you complete three or more, you’ll get diminishing returns.

You could aim for one trip at the start of the year and another just before internship recruiting begins.

You can keep participating in student groups and activities, and you should aim for a leadership role so that you have more to write on your resume.

Also, you’ll have to start thinking about your internship plans for the upcoming summer (the one after your second year).

Once again, this will probably not be an investment banking internship, but any of the options mentioned above could work.

Step 4: The Second Half of Your Second Year

At this point, many banks will start conducting information sessions at target schools, and interviews will begin and end.

So, you need to know your response to the “Walk me through your resume” question perfectly, and you need to be well-prepared for all the fit and technical questions.

If you haven’t yet found an internship for the coming summer, keep looking – writing about an “upcoming internship” on your resume will make a difference.

Step 5: The Summer After Your Second Year

You complete your second finance-related internship at this point.

Also, not all banks finish summer recruiting so early – some will continue with interviews through this summer and into the fall.

It’s not necessarily the end of the world if you miss the earliest recruiting deadlines, so you can certainly keep applying and networking.

However, your chances decrease the longer the process drags on.

Step 6: Your Third Year in University

Some banks will continue recruiting even into your third year, so you may still be able to interview around.

But if you haven’t won an internship within the first few months of this year, chances are that you won’t be in IB for the summer.

If that happens, go for something else in finance, ideally related to transactions.

One solid, frequently overlooked option is corporate banking, which can be a good steppingstone into IB.

What If You Decide on IB Too Late in the Game?

If it’s already your second year, and you haven’t yet had a finance internship or networked with alumni, then you don’t have a great shot at winning IB internships.

You might still be able to win something if you’re at a target school with high grades, but if not, focus on other options: Consulting, wealth management, corporate banking, Big 4 firms, or small PE/VC firms.

Recruiting moves more slowly and sanely in those fields, and it is possible to move into IB as a lateral hire even if you start out full-time in something else.

Also, you might be able to recruit for and win full-time IB roles even without a prior IB internship, as a reader did in this previous article.

To do that, market conditions must be right, you’ll need to do an insane amount of networking in a few short months, and you’ll have to target non-BB/EB firms (i.e., MM banks, IBABs, and regional boutiques).

Other Variations, Regions, and Considerations

In Europe and Asia, the summer analyst recruiting process is not quite as crazy (yet).

It has been trending earlier, but banks do not start and finish it before the end of your second year.

Instead, they tend to open applications in the summer after your second year and set the deadlines a few months after that.

That may seem like a big difference, but it doesn’t necessarily change that much because they conduct interviews on a first-come, first-served basis.

You’re at a huge disadvantage if you delay your applications in these regions – be ready to submit the minute they open.

The real difference in EMEA and Asia is that you can rely a bit more on your second-year internship, and you don’t need to start preparing so far in advance.

Also, it’s easier to win off-cycle internships and use options like spring weeks to boost your chances in Europe.

I’m not sure about other regions (Canada, Australia, Latin America, etc.), so if you have a sense of the timing there, feel free to leave a comment below.

Finally, at the MBA level, not much has changed because banks have a hard limitation: They can’t start recruiting until business school begins.

For 2-year programs, therefore, banks recruit in the first half of your first year and award offers by the middle of the year for internships in that year.

You still need to network and learn the technical side far in advance, but you’ve always had to do that.

Pre-MBA internships are probably more important now because business school students tend to be younger and have less experience.

Will It Ever End?

I’d like to think that at some point, banks will realize that recruiting students with no idea of their career goals is counterproductive.

But then I remember that banks also caused the last financial crisis and do nothing useful for society, and my optimism recedes.

Summer internship recruiting could eventually move up to the start of Year 2 for university students, or maybe even the middle-to-end of Year 1.

I don’t see how it could go much earlier than that; at the minimum, you need to be enrolled in a university to apply for internships.

But maybe I’m wrong.

In which case, we might see Goldman Sachs offering internships to “high-potential” 10-year-olds at the next elementary school job fair.

If you liked this post, you might be interested in How to Write a Finance Internship Resume with No Work Experience or my article about the private equity internship.

About the Author

Brian DeChesare is the Founder of Mergers & Inquisitions and Breaking Into Wall Street. In his spare time, he enjoys lifting weights, running, traveling, obsessively watching TV shows, and defeating Sauron.

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Read below or Add a comment

  1. Hey Brian, hope you’re well! I’m currently a sophomore at Community College and I’m considering transferring to a top 15 school for the spring semester. I’m really interested in the IB field, even though I haven’t had any previous experience in it. Do you think it’s still possible for me to gain relevant experience through an internship? Any advice would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!

    1. You can, but the problem is that the timing for recruiting is now very accelerated, so transferring schools when you’re already in your 2nd year may not work well, as you need to recruit for internships at large banks ~18 months before the internships begin. See the coverage of the recruiting timeline on this site. In a case like this, you might be better off aiming for non-IB roles first and moving in full-time later as a lateral hire.

  2. Hi, Brian,

    I am a transfer sophomore student at a target school right now and looking forward to going into IB. I had some coffee chat with bankers, but never got them to say they would refer me or pass my resume, I wonder if I should explicitly point out to them if they could pass my resume or something. Another question is that I plan to spend an extra year in college and do you think I could apply for sophomore internships or summer internships next year as a junior again since I am staying for an extra year? Will appreciate for any insights you could provide.

    1. Yes, you should make a casual request at the end for a referral, recommendation, or resume endorsement (or email them afterward to follow up and ask). If you are staying in school for an extra year, then you should be applying for junior-year internships next year instead (you apply ~1 year +/- a few months in advance of the summer internship that leads to full-time offers).

  3. Hey Brian, how many internships should I have before I start recruiting for BB/EB

    1. Ideally 2 solid internships or 1 solid internship + 1 good leadership experience. These internship(s) can be at boutique firms or in areas outside of IB/PE/VC etc.; they just need to look related to finance in some way.

  4. Hi Brian,

    Big thanks to you for writing this guide. Like other commenters, I was hoping you would not mind giving me some advice on how to get into IB from my specific position. I would be very grateful. I will try to keep my inquiry as brief as I can.

    I, fortunately, do go to a target school, but I am currently a sophomore who originally intended to major in a field other than economics. So, the classes I took during my freshman year and first semester of this year were not geared at all toward anything in financial industries (they were a mix of life sciences and social sciences), save for a course on macroeconomics. Next semester, my classes will of course be more pointed, but regardless, it will not be until my junior year that I will be able to take any classes related to finance.

    The one thing I do have going for me though is that I managed to land a role this semester in a consulting group at my school. So, next semester, I will be doing consulting for local organizations.

    I also have a fairly high GPA (about a 3.6), and a myriad of hobbies/volunteer activities.

    It was through this group that I realized IB may be a career I am greatly interested in. So, as of now, I am wondering what I should do in terms of summer opportunities, and also how I may want to proceed after college if I should not start immediately looking for IB options?

    1. OK, so the biggest problem you face is that recruiting for 2023 internships will start several months into 2022, which means you don’t have much time to network and prepare. The consulting internship will help, and since you go to a target school, you might be able to get in anyway despite a lack of finance internships. Your options are:

      1) Spend the next 2-3 months networking like crazy and giving yourself a crash course in accounting and corporate finance so that you can apply to banks as soon as their summer internship applications open.

      2) Or if you don’t want to do that, take a slower approach, do the above more gradually, and aim for roles like Big 4 valuation, corporate banking, etc., win a full-time offer in one of those, and eventually move into IB from there.

  5. Alexander

    Hi Brian, wonderful article. I want to load up on some easy classes this semester while pursuing a school-year internship, if possible. Would taking 12 credits tarnish my record in any way even if it leads to a much higher GPA?

      1. Alexander

        What if those 12 credits come from only 3 classes, all of which are 4 credits? I’m just concerned employers might frown upon my “gaming of the system” when reviewing my transcript.

        1. No one is looking that closely. A senior banker is not going to review every detail of your transcript, they have better things to be doing. They mostly care about school quality/reputation and overall GPA.

  6. Hi Brian, really appreciate all the articles you have. Thanks for doing them.
    I am currently in my first semester of my senior year at a non-target in Boston and it is safe to say I haven’t had much experience within IB, aside from a few bootcamps for modeling and equity research. I served in the military for 4 years, and will be graduating at 25. I have completed an internship at a large credit union that had little to do with IB and transactions in general. What steps would you recommend in taking to enter in IB or PE roles. Curious as to how IB look at military service when screening candidates. Do you think they see it as a positive or negative? I would still be willing to complete an Internship after I graduate and then hopefully land a FT offer. Do you think that’s remotely possible? or am I too far past being an ideal candidate? Would love to hear your thoughts, thanks!

    1. I would recommend reading:

      If you’re already almost done with undergrad, you’ll have to consider options like a Master’s in Finance program or an eventual MBA or working in a different industry first and then making a lateral move to IB. You don’t have much of a chance without relevant internship experience because the large banks all recruit directly from internships to full-time roles.

  7. Hi Brian, your content is incredibly valuable. Is there a way to join a community of yours that discusses these topics? If this does not exist already I think it would be a great value-add to have access to a social media group where community members can share posts and discussions and others can contribute to the discussion in real-time.

    1. Thanks. There are plenty of forums and discussion boards online if you do a search. This site is very old (started in 2007), and we considered starting a forum in the early days but ultimately decided against it, as it adds a big moderation/administration burden and is hard to justify economically.

  8. Hi Brian, I will start my MSc in Fin & Acc program at Imperial this September, and after graduation, I would like to get into Investment Banking Industry. I have some experience in corporate finance, had one summer internship in a small no-name M&A advisory firm which deals only with little private companies and finally an Investment Aid internship in PwC. I want to ask, will I be even considered for an Interview for the Summer Analyst role in Investment Banks in London? The issue I am having is that it is only 1 year MSc program and I will have an M&A internship, however not in an investment bank just regular small advisory company. Thank you for your help.

    1. In London, some banks will let you complete a summer internship even after finishing a 1-year Master’s program. So that is probably the best option here.

  9. Hi Brian!
    thanks for posting all these useful things about IB recruiting and making them fun to read! I’m currently studying in Frankfurt and I’ve done 2 IB internships so far (distressed M&A at a boutique and LevFin at an older respectable Bank [non BB]) and I’ve got one lined up at a big4 in the M&A department for summer ’21. I would like to do a summer analyst internship in London after I’m finished with undergrad (graduation is in october of 2022 – I would like to apply in august 2022 and do SA in 2023). I don’t want to apply for SA taking place in 2022 because I don’t want my GPA to drop and I need to focus on my grades. And I feel like I have better chances after I’ve improved my grades a bit anyway. Do you think that would be too late if I apply in my final year of uni and do SA after graduation? Or would you apply for SA in ’21 even if my chances are lower and I run the risk of messing up my GPA?

    1. Ok, so they generally do not let you complete summer internships after graduating unless you’re going to stay in school for a Master’s degree or an extra year or something similar. The goal is to complete the summer internship right before your final year or term in undergrad and then win a full-time return offer from that internship. So if you’re graduating in October 2022, you should do everything you can to win a summer 2022 internship, which in London means “apply as soon as applications open this year.” A small drop in your GPA is irrelevant next to completing this internship at a large bank.

      1. Florian

        The only problem with this is that I am taking exams in jul-aug because I study in Germany. And I’m working on my bachelor thesis at the same time. I just don’t see how it would be possible for me to do a Summer Analyst Intern (jun-aug), assuming I can get an offer. Is my only chance then to do a master’s degree? It seems to me that my only options are to do a master’s degree or to do an off-cycle internship in Frankfurt at a top bank (Lazard, Evercore, BofA) and then try to recruit full-time in London. What do you think?

        1. If you want a summer internship in London, then yes, you would have to do a Master’s degree, or give up on that and do an off-cycle internship in Germany.

  10. I’m currently at a Community college and I’ll be transferring to the top public college in my state (but its still a non-target school). I was not able to get any work experience under my belt (due to some VISA restrictions). But, that will get resolved soon. I’m planning on getting a part-time job at my new college and well as some other finance related internships before applying for an IB internship for the junior year summer. Do you think that’s a good plan? What else should I keep in mind? What should I major in? Financial Management or Economics?

    1. It’s hard to say because I don’t know your specific timing. Recruiting now starts a year in advance of internships, so you need finance-related internships early. Major doesn’t matter that much next to internships and networking.

  11. Is it really a bad idea to transfer to a target school? Im currently studying my undergraduate degree in Mexico but I am planning to transfer between my second and third year to have better chances of landing an internship at BB bank

    1. The problem is that recruiting now starts so early that if you transfer and start at a target school in your third year, you’ve already missed third year recruiting (which starts in your second year). So you can transfer, but you need to do so early and move by year 2.

  12. Hi Brian, I’m at a non target university in Melbourne Australia. I for a long time dwindled and didn’t have clear direction but am now in my final year, however only in the last 6 months have I realised that IB is my preferred field. My grades were average for a long time but recently have been near perfect. Am I screwed? Should I give up applying for internships due to covid and my lack of skills or go small to start with and build from there?

    1. The problem is that the IB industry in Australia is extremely small and has a high degree of nepotism, making it nearly impossible to get in unless you started very early or have a well-connected family. To have the best shot, you usually need to go outside the country or aim for roles that are slightly less competitive, such as sovereign wealth funds there (

  13. Lindsay

    Hello, I am currently a junior that is taking full time PSEO classes at a state university. I plan to do this for both my junior and senior years. If I transferred to a higher ranked college after I graduate high school would I still be considered too late to applying for IB internships?

    1. You could still do it, but the way the university system is headed in the U.S., most non-top-tier colleges will probably go bankrupt in the next few years. So it may not be worthwhile unless you can get into one of the top 15-20 schools in the country.

  14. William Asbury

    Hey Brian,
    I am transferring to a top public university (think UMich, UVA, UCLA) as a junior from community college. I haven’t interned at all. Is there still an opportunity to get an internship between Junior and Senior year? Am I screwed?

    1. Sure, but what is your goal? If you want to get into IB, it’s going to be tough-to-impossible right out of school because recruiting for 3rd year internships now takes place in your 2nd year of school. You could intern elsewhere, get into an area like corporate banking, and then move in from there.

  15. Eoeiwiuwisiw

    Hello Brian,

    How do investment bankers view research assistant experience in finance. This involves doing research on the markets. The volatility spillovers between oil and equities. Also, the cross hedging between oil, gold and eqiuties. I know that it doesn’t beat an investment banking internship but how good is it. Also, another question I desperately want to ask you, there are some investment banking internships where you can pay money to get. Would they be worth it if you could afford it ?

    1. It helps a bit and is better than nothing, but it’s not competitive with experience such as internships at banks, PE firms, VC firms, etc. It’s better than something completely unrelated, such as a marketing internship or administrative work, but the experience would be more useful for asset management / hedge funds or something on that side.

      The answer to your second question is “It depends” – would need to know your current profile, such as year in school, age, major, university, GPA, work/leadership experience so far, etc.

      Buying your way into an internship can be useful as a very young university student (1st or 2nd year) just so you have something to write about and use when networking, but it’s not that useful if you’re older than that because at that point, you need something more substantial that can lead to return offers.

  16. Hello Brian,

    I am currently in the second semester of my second year at a non-target university in the U.S. I am majoring in both economics and finance, as well as participating in an accelerated MSF program that will allow me to graduate with all three degrees in a total of 7 semesters, and so far I have a 4.0. However, I did not decide on pursuing an investment banking career until last summer and was not able to land an internship at a top firm for next summer. What can I do to eventually break into an investment bank?

    1. See this story:

      Honestly, it’s going to be very difficult if you graduate early and you also got started late. A better option might be to focus on something else for now, such as Big 4 valuation or corporate finance or corporate banking, win a full-time offer there, and then lateral into IB later on.

  17. Tehreem Siddiqi

    Hey Brian!

    Your website is really helpful, thank you!
    I am currently a junior at a target school in my country, but not a target school for global investment banks. I’ve completed an audit internship at one of the Big4 Audit firms, and have substantial extracurricular activities to mention, as well as a 4.0 GPA.
    However, I really want to work for a top investment bank. What do you think would be a suitable plan:
    1) Working for top banks in my country and gaining experience, then applying for associate level positions at these banks OR
    2) Going for a master’s degree (MIF from HEC Paris or MIT Sloan) right after graduation to a target school, then trying to secure a position at a global bank?

    1. If you can win IB offers in your country and then transfer elsewhere, that is the best option. It’s not a great idea to try to move up the ladder in a smaller country because career opportunities will be more limited. A Master’s degree seems unnecessary if you can win an IB offer right after graduation, anywhere.

  18. How long does it take for a response from a bank to an application through a university career website? I had a positive informational networking call and recently applied for a Summer Analyst position.

    1. Depends on the bank and when it started its hiring process and when it will end its process. If you apply online, you should get a notification about a HireVue or the next interview in the process within the next week or two, and sometimes much faster than that.

      1. Hi Brian, I appreciate the article.
        I am currently a Sophomore at a Target with a 3.7 GPA. I interned at a incubator my freshman summer and have a small pe internship lined up this summer in Shanghai. I am debating if I should pledge a social frat or a business fraternity this semester while recruiting(have already gotten a bid in the social frat, knows a lot of kids from the business fraternity). Do you think I should go ahead with pledging(either the social or business frat) or should I simply focuses on technicals and networkings instead. What should I do right now to best improve my chances to get a job in ib?

        Thank you,

        1. I would not bother unless the business frat has a strong track record of sending students into IB, and you can easily access alumni from that frat and network with them. Otherwise, you have enough internship experience to be competitive for IB internships, assuming you do the right amount of preparation and networking.

  19. Hi,
    Im about to start my second year in Business Adminitstration at a university in Greece (University of Macedonia) i have just completed an internship at an accounting office here and I just realised that I want to get into IB (bit late..,i know). Now, since its not quite a reputable school, would you recommend getting an Ms in Finance(or similar) from a UK or US school and then applying for summer interships?
    Is this a possible path for me to get into IB?

    1. Yes. If you don’t attend a top university for IB recruiting, your best option in most cases is to apply to an MS program at a top school in the US or UK.

  20. Brian,
    I’m a rising sophomore from a Canadian target with a 3.5 GPA. I’m currently doing a Corporate Banking role at a Chinese bank. I was looking at applying for some IB SA roles for 2020. However, I noticed that many of the BB/EB’s have strict requirements for graduation dates between 2020 and 2021. Would it be worth the effort to apply to these roles and complete their online assessments? Or would my application get filtered out right off the bat?
    Also, what are some roles I should consider applying and realistically have a chance of receiving offers?
    Thanks in advance.

    1. There is no point in applying for 3rd year internships if you are going into your 2nd year. See this list for suggested steppingstone internships:

  21. Sameeksha Satpathy

    Hi Brian,

    Thanks a lot for this article!

    I am a Masters student from a French business school and I am going to intern with one of the Tier 2 Investment Banks in London (Ranks of DB/CS/Barclays). I want to start an analyst role in London from July 2020 but I would prefer shifting to one of the American Investment Banks in London.

    For this purpose, I plan on applying to full-time positions in these American banks (Also, in case I do not get an offer to convert my internship into an FT role). My school’s program is pretty flexible so it gives me the option to complete my degree in June 2020 or January 2021. Do you suggest that I apply to summer analyst programs only, or could I go ahead with FT recruiting? Considering the fact that for most of these American banks, the analyst class is mostly filled with converted summer interns (also since most banks have a February intake, I could join in February 2021 instead of waiting till July 2021).

    Thanks in advance!

    1. It’s almost always better to apply for summer internship roles and then convert an internship into a full-time offer. In London it is a bit easier to apply for full-time roles directly and win them, especially if you have previous internship experience, but it’s still less ideal than doing a summer internship first. I would not recommend applying for both summer internships and full-time roles at the same time.

  22. Hi Brian,

    I am a rising senior at a target school. My GPA is 3.8. I have 3 past internships: in a pension fund, treasury department of an IBAB, and a private equity firm all in the Middle East. I did not know if I wanted to do investment banking and I wasn’t sure if I wanted to stay in the States, so I didn’t do a great job in the IB junior year recruitment for BBs/EBs. Instead, I accepted an offer to work on the asset management arm of an insurance company in the Middle East for this summer. How does my profile look for full-time recruiting for IB positions for BBs and EBs? What can I do to bolster my chances of an IB full-time offer at BBs/EBs, especially in Wall St? I am also a portfolio manager in a student investment fund. My only problem is that I wasn’t sure about investment banking around the time of junior year recruitment, so I missed out. Am I screwed?


    1. It’s going to very difficult to win full-time IB roles at BB and EB banks because they mostly give full-time roles to interns. Sometimes spots open up, and some interns do drop out, but realistically, you’re going to have a tough time. I would probably focus on smaller banks in regional offices outside of NY. This article might help:

  23. Hi Brian,

    In your article, you recommend conducting weekend trips to New York or the major financial center closest to you. Could you be more specific about what to aim for in those weekend trips? Thank you so much for your article!

    1. We have a guide to weekend trips here:

      You should use them to meet people in real life once you’ve already spoken with them on the phone and to get referrals on the spot to other co-workers at the firm.

  24. Hi Brian,
    I’m sophomore studying at umich and I just decided to do finance after September. I was wondering whether the boutique and middle market bank summer 2019 recruitment have the same insane timeline and already ended before July or i still have a chance by cold-calling and cold-emailing.

    1. Summer 2019 recruitment is mostly over. You might be able to find a few places and smaller firms that are still hiring if you reach out aggressively.

  25. Hi Brian,
    Thanks for the insight! I am a first year in college and I am wondering when would be a good time to cold email or call local boutique banks for summer 2019 internships? And what kind of knowledge or skills should I have to prepare for such internships?

    Thank you!

    1. Yesterday? Recruiting is now hyper-accelerated. Summer 2019 recruiting began in February 2018 and is now over at the large banks. So, start contacting banks ASAP. For the knowledge and skills required, read this article again because we cover everything here… see the interview articles as well.

  26. Hi Brian,

    I absolutely love all the information on your page, keep up the good work.

    I am starting my undergrad studies this fall in London at a (semi) target school after having completed a Big 4 M&A internship in Frankfurt in last six months. Now being in London, I am currently applying to the spring insight programmes at the BBs and the EBs. My question would be whether you think I have a shot at the summer Internships at BBs & EBs for next summer, or if you think that I should focus on other internships for next summer and instead wait on the results for the spring insights to break into the BBs and EBs? In that case, what would you recommend me to do next summer? I see in this article that you have some suggestions, but given that I already have completed an M&A internship before my first year of studies, I wondered if you had any specific ideas in my situation :D

    Sorry, this was a longer post than I expected, but thank you so much Brian!

    Best regards

    1. No, just aim for the summer internships at banks as soon as you can. Spring week programs can help, but people online tend to exaggerate their importance. They also have some downsides that people ignore (e.g., what if you do one but then don’t receive an offer out of it? That will be tough to explain in interviews).

      If you already did an M&A internship at a Big 4 firm, go for an internship at a smaller PE or VC firm or even one at a dedicated boutique bank (see some of the stories for those on the site). The Big 4 brand name helps, but bankers still perceive it as being different from “true” IB even if you worked on M&A deals.

  27. Brian,

    I’m a finance and economics major with a 3.95 GPA from a non target university. I will be beginning the second semester of my sophomore year by credits this upcoming fall; however, I have taken summer classes and positioned myself to graduate by May 2020 should I choose. I lack previous internship experience, but I started a home renovation business which I have operated the past two summers. I have not yet began seriously networking or applying for investment banking internships. At this point in the game due to the unconventional nature of my graduation timeline would you recommend attempting to market myself for investment banking internships as is with a projected graduation date of May 2020 to try and land an investment banking internship for summer 2019, or should I bite the bullet and plan to graduate in December 2020, putting myself in better standing for summer 2020 investment banking internship recruiting, while focusing on networking and landing a preliminary financial internship for summer 2019 now to better help my chances? Thanks!

    1. You’re quite late for summer 2019 internships (recruiting began in February 2018), so I would recommend going for a December 2020 graduation date and summer 2020 internship, especially since you’re at a non-target school and need more time to networking.

  28. Brian,

    I’m an incoming sophomore at Princeton with a 4.0 interested in IB. Unfortunately, I didn’t find an internship for this summer. I tried looking, but it was too little too late. I recently found this website, and it’s given me a lot more awareness surrounding the whole process. (Thanks for that!) How do you recommend I make the most of the rest of my summer? And how should I go about finding internships for my sophomore summer? (It seems like most places only have diversity programs for sophomores). Thanks!

    1. You have to pound the pavement and start networking. There are some tips here:

      If you can’t win an IB role, aim for smaller/local PE or VC firms.

      1. Thanks for the suggested readings! I’ll get started. And id you don’t mind me asking, where should I start on getting some background technical knowledge? I’ve heard the Rosenbaum book is good but maybe not too beginner friendly. Thanks again for the swift reply!

        1. Look at our YouTube channel… read the technical articles here… look at the Rosenbaum & Pearl book or others… these days, you also need more than background technical knowledge to get through networking and interviews.

  29. Hi Brian,

    I am an international student starting a quantitative finance master next month in New York. I would like to start early in my recruiting process. Do internships typically open in August already? And I would look for internships at associate levels, correct?

    1. No. Master’s degrees lead to Analyst-level internships. The timing is a bit unclear if it’s a 1-year program, but the general rule of thumb is to apply as early as humanly possible. A lot of summer 2019 spots are already filled at this stage since recruiting started in *February* this year. But with a quantitative finance degree, do you even want to do investment banking? Quant fund, data science, and other hedge fund roles might be a better fit.

  30. Vaibhav

    Hi, Brian
    I am from India and I have completed by MBA and interned for 5 months in IB controls division of a BB.
    I am going for MSF at WUSTL and want to break into IB/PE. I had 2 small internships in valuation and risk management.
    Will it be possible for me as I already have a masters

    1. I think you’re going to run into issues because you already have an MBA… which means you should be applying for Associate-level roles. I guess you could do it if you present that degree differently?

  31. Hi Brian, thanks for the article! I’m currently an incoming sophomore at a target university with a GPA of 3.8. Over the summer, I’m not doing finance–I’m interning at a “Big 5” tech company doing some software development. You highly emphasized getting a finance internship after the first year, which I clearly don’t have–am I too derailed from potentially working in IB?

    I also clearly did not start reaching out to recruiters for IB this January–would doing so now be too late? And, would you recommend trying to go for a smaller, finance related internship next year and then getting a bigger one in the summer after my junior year?

    1. You could still potentially win an IB internship, but you will be at a disadvantage. If you start networking in the fall after your internship ends, and you can do something finance-related during the school year, you might be able to do it.

      The problem is that a finance-related internship after your second year no longer helps that much because 3rd year recruiting takes place before your 2nd year ends. So… what you do in your first year and first half of your second year is quite important. You should still apply for this type of internship just so you can point to it as something that you’re going to do. But it’s also important to get some type of finance experience before you apply to large banks for the junior-year internship.

  32. Hey Brian, appreciate the updated article! I’m a freshman from a non-target school that came in as a 18 yr old Junior as I received my AA co-currently in high school. I’m currently a licensed realtor and have worked in real estate for the last year during high school.

    However, I basically shot myself in the foot by coming in as a Junior with my GPA not transferring and taking blows with the courses and now having it below a 3.5.

    I extended my graduation to December 2019 by adding a second emphasis in accounting from having it in finance to even having a shot at Junior Internships.

    Any recomendations on what I should do is greatly appreciated!!

    1. If you are graduating in December 2019 and have a GPA below 3.5, all you can really do at this point is network extensively and hope some summer 2019 spots are still open at banks. You might get lucky and find some firms that have not yet filled their summer intern classes, but you need to act ASAP to have a shot at this.

      If that does not work after several months of effort, think about other options such as Big 4 firms, corporate finance at normal companies, etc. and then use one of those to move into IB as a lateral hire.

  33. Matthew


    I got to an university ranked around 60th in the country. Do you think a 3.80 gpa makes the cut? coming from a non-core school, i wanted it as close to a 4.0 as possible, but messed up few classes. Asking because I hear for target schools, GPA cut is like 3.7 nowadays for on campus recruiting.

    1. Yes, 3.8 is fine. Minimum GPAs have risen a bit over time, but 3.8 should be fine even if you’re at a non-target or semi-target.

  34. Hi Brian,

    Currently a sophomore at a target school. I am going through the recruiting process right now but I’m really struggling because i started with a hard major (that I have since dropped) that ruined my GPA (Below 3.0). I thought I would have had time to improve but i’m being judged on just 3 semesters of work. I have previous banking experience at a boutique through family connections but can’t seem to get past this GPA. Any advice is greatly appreciated

    1. That is a tough one. All you can really do with a low GPA is say that your work experience reflects your capabilities, and your grades suffered in your first year because you changed your major. But that won’t necessarily work these days because of the speed of the recruiting process. Another option might be to go for non-banking internships, such as at Big 4 firms or corporate finance at normal companies, and then leverage one of those to win a banking offer in the future. But I don’t have a great answer for you because a low GPA is tough to overcome unless you can mask it with higher subsequent grades or another degree.

      1. Thank you Brian, I really appreciate you taking the time out to respond to these questions. I guess the best course of action for me will be to focus on my GPA for now and perhaps return to the boutique for more experience and try to go for full time positions in my senior year with a better GPA.

  35. Hey Brian, really appreciate your article. I’m studying at an Australian University, which has an overseas campus in Malaysia. I’m planning to do an exchange for one semester at a non target in America the beginning of next year. Do you think I have any chance at all in networking over the semester and winning a bulge bracket interview?

    1. Possibly, but your chances aren’t great because you have two factors counting against you (international and non-target university) – you’d have to convince them that your long-term plan is to stay in the U.S. and work there after graduating.

  36. Hey Brian, I am currently a student at a target school recruiting for Summer 2019 internships. However, I am just starting to network now. Many of your articles talk about not directly asking about internship opportunities at the end of your first informational interview with a banker. However, given the accelerated recruiting timeline, would you recommend making the ask directly after this first call?

    1. Yes. “Not asking directly about internships” applies if you are starting far in advance. You are starting very late, so you should ask directly.

  37. Hey, I’m currently at a non-target with a 3.5 GPA and I was considering double majoring Accounting and Financial Math and Stats, however given my GPA I’m considering just taking brain dead easy classes that won’t fulfill anything. If I do so, I probably will not be able to complete both majors, and will probably just choose Accounting. Since, recruiting is so accelerated, I’m hoping I can bump my GPA up to a 3.7 or 3.8 before sophomore spring, but again I personally do want to complete both majors, its just given the situation I wonder if I should give one up simply for the GPA.

    Thank you.

    1. You should give up one of those to get a higher GPA. A double major will not help you much compared to a higher GPA. Just pick one major and go with it. If you’re from a non-target school, you really need to avoid a lower GPA and/or a major that’s perceived as “too easy,” such as something liberal arts-related.

  38. Hey Brian, current freshman at a target here. Is it too late now to find a freshman summer internship in finance? I don’t have anything yet, and I’m freaking out!
    Should I just start cold emailing PWMs and botique PE firms in my area? I don’t have strong finance or excel skills yet so I don’t know what I would offer these firms.

    1. It’s definitely not too late because internship recruiting for first-year students is a lot less structured. Yes, you should start contacting firms and asking about internship opportunities. If you don’t have strong finance or Excel skills yet, offer to help them in other areas, such as with administrative tasks or sourcing (for the PE firms). There are some good tips here:

      Direct quote from the article:

      “They did not give me any case studies or modeling tests because:

      1) I didn’t “market” myself as having technical / modeling experience; and
      2) Many of these firms wanted interns to source deals (i.e. cold call) or monitor portfolio companies, so technical skills were less important.”

      Also, keep in mind that if you’re at a target school, you don’t necessarily need quite as much internship experience… you could even go for a school-year internship in your second year.

  39. Great article Brian. This is crazy. I’m currently a freshman at a target, searching for an this summer, hopefully in finance.

    You said that we should develop an interesting extracurricular activity over the summer. What is an example of this? Would charity work suffice? In my free time, I like playing tennis, surfing, fishing, and hanging out with friends, but I have nothing spectacular or interesting I do in my free time.

    Should I pick up some unique hobby over the summer or something? Thanks!

    1. Charity work could work if you could spin it in an interesting way (location, people involved, organization involved, problem you were solving, something like that). If I were you, I would pick the “surfing” angle because that will seem appealing to stressed-out bankers who never go outside. And then you can say that you’ve been surfing in Exotic Location X. It doesn’t even have to be “exotic,” even something like Mexico or the Caribbean would sound appealing to bankers. So I don’t think you need to pick up any other hobbies.

  40. At my university consulting has the same early timeline as IB. Some are already finishing up with recruiting. So, unfortunately, other companies are starting to do the same thing as IB.

    1. Wow, that’s depressing, thanks for sharing. I guess the “consulting” reference in this article should be to non-management-consulting roles… assuming those are still open.

  41. Hi, I just got a degree in political Science some months ago but indeed I’m interested in finance, i’m also willing to get an MBA within 7 years (I want to go to a top BS so I need to save a lot) after getting experience in a commercial bank (then I want to swift to IB) I just got hired. Regarding I’m not going to BS yet but I’m already working in a bank, do you recomend to quit my job to do an internship in the following months, or should I wait till get my MBA to apply for one? Thaks for your response

    1. I’m not sure I understand your question, but if you are already working full-time, you can’t quit and do an internship. It’s better to keep your current job, look for something else more closely related to finance, and then consider an MBA in the future.

      1. Thanks, I’ll consider your advice.

  42. Hey Brian, I appreciate the updated article. I’m currently a college student transferring to a university this fall. I understand it might be too late for recruiting this year due to the earlier timeline. However, can I extend graduation by a quarter for a second shot of recruiting? Or is getting a masters more viable? Thanks for all the help you provide.

    1. Thanks! I think it depends on what you transfer in as. If you’re transferring in as a third year, yes, it might be too late to go for summer internships this year. If you extended graduation by a quarter, then yes, you would have a better shot at internships. I would not go for a Master’s degree unless you go through recruiting 1-2 times and do not get the offer you want.

  43. Thanks for insight. Any insights into how FT recruitment is affected in terms of if want to go FT somewhere different than where I summered?

    1. Accelerated recruiting for FT roles still exists. The timing might move up now, but the idea is the same. As always, it’s highly dependent on market conditions because no matter how good you are, if the major banks got 100% intern retention, you’re not going to get a spot. But if the intern yields were worse than expected, more spots will open up.

  44. Hi Brian,

    I’m starting the MSc Finance at a target in the UK this coming September. I’ve heard it’s challenging to recruit for roles in the US coming from the UK, but I’d like to give it a shot in any case. Do you think it would be possible to get in on early recruitment in the US?

    1. It would be very difficult unless your MSc lasts for two years. Otherwise, it would make more sense to apply for roles in the UK and then transfer to the US later on.

      1. Thanks. Feel free to delete my second comment — I thought my first comment failed to post. Sorry!

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