by Brian DeChesare Comments (23)

Age and Investment Banking: When Is It Too Late to Break Into the Industry, and What Should You Do If You’re “Too Old”?

Age and Investment Banking

There are few topics as heated as age and investment banking.

But unlike other controversial topics – crypto, the CFA, or social media censorship – this one rarely generates long-running online arguments.

Instead, it mostly produces comments such as: “Am I too old? Do I have any chance if I’m above the age of X? What should I do with my life if I’m too old for banking?”

There were 1,108 comments in the two older versions of this article, and most of them were asking these exact questions.

You probably don’t have time to read them all, so here is the TL;DR version of my responses:

  • It’s not so much about your “age” – which companies in many countries cannot legally ask for – but your years of post-university full-time work experience.
  • If you have more than 2 – 3 years of full-time work experience after university, it will be very difficult to get in at the Analyst level (estimated age cut-off of 25, but it may be more like 27 – 28 depending on when you started the degree).
  • And if you have more than 3 – 5 years of pre-MBA full-time work experience and then do an MBA, it will become difficult to win an Associate-level role (most are under the age of 30, but the upper limit is probably closer to 35).
  • If you are older than these age ranges and still want to win a traditional investment banking role, you should start by asking yourself, “Why?” If the answer is “to make more money” or “to do something more exciting,” there are more feasible ways to achieve these goals.
  • If you’re 40, 45, or 50+, but you’re still convinced that you want to work long hours cranking out pitch books, CIMs, and financial models, there are sometimes very specialized pathways into IB, but your chances are still quite low.

Now that I’ve crushed your dreams, let’s take a look at why banks care about age:

Age and Investment Banking: Why Does It Matter?

If you’re asking this question, you probably don’t know much about the industry, so I recommend reading our guides to investment banking career paths and how to get into investment banking first.

Age matters a lot because:

  1. Banks rarely hire mid or top-level professionals from other industries. Most new hires join at the entry level, and for levels above that, they hire experienced bankers from other firms.
  2. You need to work long hours in entry-level IB roles, and older candidates are less willing and able to do so. There are exceptions, but the average 35- or 45-year-old is far less willing to work 70-80 hours per week than an inexperienced, driven 22-year-old right out of university.
  3. You also need to take orders from crazy and deranged people above you without questioning them. The less experienced new hires are, the easier it is to make them follow orders. But if you’ve already had 10, 15, or 20 years of work experience elsewhere, you’re probably not going to listen to a micromanager who’s much younger than you.

Banks have been making a big “diversity push” to attract a wider pool of candidates.

But don’t be fooled: yes, they want people with different ethnic backgrounds, skin colors, genders, identities, etc., but not different ages.

There is some “wiggle room” because some people start and graduate from university later than others.

So, for example:

  • If you’re currently 28, but you did military service before university and, therefore, have only 2 years of full-time work experience, you could potentially get into investment banking via lateral hiring or a Master’s in Finance program.
  • But if you’re 28, you graduated from university at 22, and you have 6 years of full-time work experience, you’re highly unlikely to get in as an Analyst. You’ll probably need a top MBA at this stage.
  • If you’re currently 30, but you started university late and, therefore, have only 4 years of full-time work experience, you could use MBA recruiting to get into banking, assuming that you get into one of the top programs.
  • But if you’re 30, graduated from university at 22, and have 8 years of full-time experience, along with a mid-level position at a large company, it will be more difficult. It’s still possible, but the success probability is much lower.

There are other confounders here, such as 5-year degrees in some parts of the world, possible volunteer or work experience before you start university, gap years, etc.

Also, these guidelines are less stringent in emerging markets and in cases where you’ve had highly relevant work experience – such as corporate law – or if you’ve already worked in banking, did something else, and now want to return.

If you have a complicated, confusing, or different situation, you should think about your years of full-time work experience after university to quickly assess your chances of getting into this industry.

And before someone leaves an angry comment describing their 45-year-old friend who won an IB job offer after spending 20 years in another career, yes, there are always exceptions and crazy stories.

But the basic point is that it’s fine to experiment and switch careers when you’re in university or just beyond it, and you should do this with your internships and first few jobs.

As you get older, switching becomes more and more difficult, especially if you want to move into an industry that heavily favors younger candidates.

Age and Investment Banking: What Do You Do If You’re Too Old?

If you still want to get into IB after reading the warnings and explanations above, you should start by asking, “Why?”

I’m not talking about the BS that you use to answer the “Why investment banking?” question in interviews – I’m referring to your real reasons for wanting to make the change:

  • You Want to Earn More Money: Fair point, but there are more realistic ways to achieve this, such as starting a side business, becoming a coach/consultant, negotiating a higher salary, or trading/investing in your free time.
  • You Want More Excitement: You should probably seek out non-work solutions for this one, such as bungee jumping or skydiving, because I would not call most banking roles “exciting” in a positive way.
  • You Want to Be Around Wealthy/Powerful People: There are many other ways to “network” with rich and powerful people (conferences/events, non-profit boards, golf, expensive gyms, exotic sports, etc.).
  • You Really Want to Work on Deals, and You Have Relevant Industry Experience: OK, now you have a good reason to make this transition.

“You really want to work on deals” means that you treat deals like football fans treat football: you read about them constantly, examine the legal documents for fun, and form strong views about M&A deals, IPOs, and more.

For example, think about all the drama surrounding Elon Musk’s deal to acquire Twitter and look at all the documents I highlighted in my analysis of it.

Would you do something like this for fun?

Do you find it interesting to look at presentations, articles, and documents about this type of deal and then form your own views about it, backed up by numbers and analysis?

If that is you, you should skip past the next section and go to the bottom part of this article.

If that’s not you, but you still want to do something finance-related for higher pay, you should think about alternate pathways that let you achieve some of the same goals:

Alternate Pathways into Finance or “Deal” Roles

Your best options in this scenario are:

  1. Apply for Operational Roles at Private Equity Firms or Their Portfolio Companies – These firms are not going to hire you as an Analyst or Associate working on deals, but they will hire you if you have a strong network in a certain industry and a lot of experience with operational turnarounds or new product/business launches.
  2. Move in Through the “Side Door” to Win a Corporate Development Role – Another option is to apply to strategy or corporate finance roles at large companies and then network your way into corporate development roles so you can work on acquisitions, joint ventures, and partnerships. The age requirements are less strict, and more experience usually helps you in corporate development recruiting.
  3. If You Have a Very Technical Background, Consider Certain Equity Research or Venture Capital Groups – “Very technical” means something like medicine, biochemistry, physics, or advanced hardware (semiconductors). If you have a Ph.D. or other advanced degree in one of these fields and you understand the technical side quite well, you could win a role in a group that requires deep technical expertise to evaluate companies (e.g., biotech equity research).
  4. Consider Careers Where Results Outweigh Credentials and Age – For example, search funds, certain areas within commercial real estate, and proprietary trading might qualify. With the first two, you’d be working on “deals” – just smaller ones – and with the last one, many trading firms are open to different ages and backgrounds as long as you can make money.

We’ve covered these options in various other “career path” articles, which I’ve linked to above.

The main point is that while age may be less important, you need legitimate, verifiable qualifications to have a good shot.

For example, no PE firm will hire you as an “operational partner” or “consultant” if you have 2 – 3 years of project management experience at a tech startup.

You should ideally have a mid-to-high-level role in the industry with responsibility for a specific group’s P&L and a solid network of contacts at different companies.

Age and Investment Banking: OK, But What If You Still Want to Do IB?

I have seen a few people get in at the Vice President level after 10+ years of work experience, but only under very specific conditions:

  • They were typically quite senior, such as the VP of an entire division at a Fortune 500 company.
  • They went to middle market or boutique banks.
  • They all had highly relevant industry experience, such as a business development manager at a tech company joining a technology or TMT group.
  • They accepted significant pay cuts and were brought in “below their level,” such as a Manager or VP at a Fortune 500 company joining as a 3rd Year Associate.
  • They all found jobs in strong hiring markets where deal activity was rising, and many groups found themselves understaffed.

There isn’t much to say about the specific tactics because networking is networking, and you should be quite good at sending emails and picking up the phone if you’re at this level.

Are You Too Old?

This is a vague question, so the only reasonable answer is: “It depends.”

You will not win an IB Analyst or Associate role if you’re a 40- or 50-year-old accountant, but if you want to make more money while doing something related to finance or deals, there are options.

And if you have your heart set on banking, it may be possible to get in above the age of 35, but usually only in very specialized situations.

If your background does not match the specialized circumstances described above, you should spend your time on other pursuits:

  • Start a side business.
  • Become a coach or consultant.
  • Invest in stocks, real estate, or other assets.
  • Aim for finance-related roles with less stringent age requirements, such as corporate strategy/finance jobs or prop trading.

These options are not investment banking, but they still take you closer to your goals, and they offer more realistic pathways to get there.

And you’ll never be too old for most of them.

If you liked this article, you might be interested in reading The Credit Analyst Career Path: How to Get Into Finance Through the Side Door.

About the Author

Brian DeChesare is the Founder of Mergers & Inquisitions and Breaking Into Wall Street. In his spare time, he enjoys memorizing obscure Excel functions, editing resumes, obsessing over TV shows, traveling like a drug dealer, and defeating Sauron.

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Comments

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  1. Hi Brian,
    I always thank you for your insight and products.

    I am currently 27 and have 3-year experience as a coverage(did credit things but usually outsourcing difficult financing tasks. Didn’t build any means drl, just used models by others.) for SMEs in corporate banking. I got an internal transfer offer from a product group in IBD of my current workplace. I can start my new position next March and it is about structuring&asset finance mostly about Aviation/Shipping finance.

    My final goal is working in the PE focusing on deals in Asia(because I realized that I have better insight into Asia than others) , and I don’t mind the country I live in, but want to experience Western countries.

    After I work in the products team for 3 or 6 months, I want to move on the next step.

    here are my qustions.

    1) As my next step, should I go for an MBA/Master in the US/UK or move to another bank, probably BB?(I am working for a Tier 2 bank in Shanghai)
    2) If I better to move, Should I stay in the Aviation/Shipping finance or is there any preferred areas I have to focus on?

    3) CFA VS modeling which is more important? I am doing both together (I am pursuing lv1 and planning to be the charter until age 29)
    and I also know if there is any recommended training course for people like me with some solid working experience in the financial industry, but not in IBD.

    4) Should I spend my time improving my language skill- Japanese? I am half Chinese/Korean. Is it meaningful to be fluent in all major Asian languages?

    5) If there is any advice for me, please let me know!

    thank you very much:):)

    1. sorry for editing this comment

      • Didn’t build any means drl
      ?Didn’t build any model

      • and I also know if there is any recommended training course for people like me
      ?I also want to know

      thank you a lot:)

    2. Moving to another bank in an IB group will be more helpful than a Master’s/MBA, especially if you’re already at the Associate level. Aviation/shipping finance is quite niche, so for PE roles, you’d be better off in something broader, such as infrastructure or industrials.

      Modeling is much more important than the CFA. We have modeling courses (https://breakingintowallstreet.com/breaking-into-wall-street-courses/), but other options do exist, including books and live training. The BIWS courses are long and detailed, but you can jump around and complete only the most relevant portions to save time (useful if you already know some of the material).

      It will not be helpful to learn/improve your Japanese skills unless you want to work in Japan. Other than that, the biggest point is that you need to do all this quickly because the longer you stay in CB/IB, the harder it will be to move into PE (maybe not quite as true in Asia, but there’s still a relative limit).

  2. Hi Brian, what a great and insightful article, thank you! Ive got a background in performance marketing and digital acquisition, but also in the voluntary carbon market as a project developer. Is there any realistic path that could move me into finance you think? After reading your article, it’s clear IB isn’t it but wondering if my skills could be valuable elsewhere with 6 years of professional experience now. Best wishes, Lucas

    1. Your best bet at this point is probably to get an MBA and move in like that. If not, maybe look at related roles in the power/utilities/energy sectors for companies that have to deal with carbon markets. You might be able to move into a finance role at one of those firms.

  3. Hi Brian, thank you for your post.

    I graduated at age of 23 with bachelor in engineering. I am currently 25 and have near to 2 years working experience.
    1 year as engineer
    Almost 1 year as a credit analyst in retail bank (my current role)

    I have passed CFA Level 1 and had just attempted CFA Level 2. The reason I started my CFA is to break into IB. I am currently trying to break into IB or investment/asset management firm.

    May I know what should be my next best move?
    I am not qualified for master in Finance as I was told I do not hold degree of relevant field.
    Should I take bachelor degree in finance now? If I were to take degree in finance, I am planning to take financial modelling / VBA excel course alongside my degree
    However, I will be 29 by the time I graduated. I am stuggling to figure this out and would appreciate your advice.

    Thank you in advance, Brian

    1. Your best bet is to aim for something like corporate banking or a bank that has a combined corporate and investment banking group so your credit analyst experience will be relevant. You could try to aim for credit-related roles in IB, such as DCM or LevFin, directly, but I think your chances would be better with corporate banking experience at a larger firm first. I would not do another degree at this stage. Please see:

      https://mergersandinquisitions.com/credit-analyst-career-path/
      https://mergersandinquisitions.com/corporate-banking/

  4. Hey Brian,

    Hope this message find you well. I graduated in 2019 and have no experience in finance besides a degree in finance and minor in math. I’m 34 and am currently taking a financial modeling excel course since I never did any internships either. I know my chances to get into IB are slim to none. My question is, what other entry-level roles can I do as an analyst and how can I go about doing that?

    1. Commercial banking (credit analyst-type roles), maybe corporate banking with more experience, maybe corporate finance at a normal company. If you do a search on this site for these terms, you’ll find some overviews and examples of how to recruit for them.

  5. Hi Brian,

    I’m 30, I have an Operational finance background in Alternative Investments (and a couple other Ops roles) that I worked from 21-24 right out of university but I haven’t been active in the professional world since. I ended in a bad situation and I’ve lived on Investments throughout this time. I have no attachments (i.e kids, limitations to work 80-100 hr weeks) and I understand the necessity of being mentally malleable. What is my best (i.e most efficient/fastest) route to banking? Is it through an adjacent Ops role at a PE firm/strategy corporate development role? Going to school for an MBA and coming out at 32-33? Do I have any reasonable chance applying as an analyst or is it a long shot? If I were to go to an Ops role, which kind would be the best in-between fit from what I did formally to where I’d like to be?

    1. A top MBA degree is your most likely path into banking at this stage, assuming you can get into a top program (hard to say because I don’t know your full background). If you don’t want to do that, you could go for Ops roles or corporate finance/development/strategy roles at normal companies and aim to get in like that, but you will probably get the “too much experience for IB” objection if you go that route. It might be a decent option if you just want to work on deals, say in corporate development, and don’t care specifically about IB.

      I think you will have a really difficult time just applying to IB Analyst roles now if you haven’t had work experience over the past ~6 years or if you list your experience as “personal investing” or something similar – because they’ll then ask why you’re even bothering with IB if you’ve done so well with your own investments. You probably need some type of more recent work experience first.

  6. Hi Brian, I am a recent graduate in London and wish to pursue a career in hf/ib, however I have little relevant internship experience so what do you recommend me to do?

  7. Hi Brian,
    I’ve been reading a lot of these “too old” articles, but none have really discussed my situation which is being 37 and ‘recently’ graduated, (ie I have gone back to school and I am looking to graduate when I’m 37). Would the ‘banks’ consider me too old, or just another new grad? Would a masters make a difference (making me older, but more qualified)?

    1. It’s hard to answer this question because I don’t know what you did before the degree. If you had something like 10-12 years of work experience before your undergraduate degree, that might be pushing the boundaries of what banks usually accept. But if you had military service or something like that, it might be fine. I don’t really think a Master’s degree would help if you’ve already had over a decade of work experience before the degree (with that much, an MBA might be your best bet). But the short answer is I would need more information to tell you anything specific.

  8. Hi Brian,

    I am in need of your valuable advise. I’m 27 with 2 years++ of combined working experience (6 Months finance intern + 1 year plus non-IB banking + 6 month M&A intern at boutique).

    Would doing a master helps? Or should I just keep trying o search for more internship / full time role in anyway I could? Also, given the opportunity in my country (Non SG, & HK Asia country) is super limited. Thus, from your point of view, what’s my best chance in getting into full time IB role? It will be best if I get land a role in Sg or HK, but I doubt they will take me.

    Thanks in advance!

    1. At this point, yes, a Master’s degree in a different region might help because you could get stuck doing more internships and non-full-time roles otherwise, especially if you’re in a country without many full-time roles. I would not even bother with HK given the current situation there. Singapore might be a bit better, but I have no idea of the quality of Master’s programs there or which ones are best for IB in the country. If you can, a Master’s degree in Europe or the U.S. is probably your best bet because those markets tend to have more job openings in general.

  9. Hey Brian!
    Thank you for this article and website! I enter the top 5 university in Russia at the age of 20, I will receive a diploma at the age of 23, 10 months, thanks to your article, I realized that I have a chance to even build a career in finance) I used to think that I was hopelessly behind my peers …
    I’m from Russia, my English is at B1 level.

    1. Good luck! I think the bigger issue is that you probably don’t want to start working in Russia – not just due to “recent events” but because it’s not a great place to start working in IB. London is much better if you can go there.

  10. Any thoughts on going from experienced buyside mid-level (VP) professional at a stagnant fund to a relevant banking product group as VP. Cash comp is good in banking but how would you think about promotion risk to SVP, hours, but also longevity at a bank (i.e how long will that high cash income stream last if you come in as experienced VP). For someone around 35 years of age.

    Lastly, are VP hours at MM platforms more than 60 hours a week (outside of big deal execution milestones)?

    Thanks!

    1. It’s always possible to move back into IB, but you’re going to get a lot of questions about why you’re doing it instead of just moving to a better/different/newer fund or even a startup fund. If you have good answers to those questions and you’ve had previous IB experience, sure, you can do it, but it will still be difficult, especially given the current hiring market.

      VP is probably the toughest role in IB because you have to balance so many different tasks, so there is considerable risk in advancing to the SVP level. If they bring you in as an experienced VP, there is a risk that you could be forced out in 1-2 years if they decide not to promote you.

      You will probably be working less than 60 hours at most middle market banks outside of busy periods for deals (maybe 50-55? Estimates vary widely).

  11. Hi Brian,

    Thanks for making this site and its products. I am currently on your Excel/VBA course, and feel like it gives me a good start for learning advanced modeling. The sheer number of content in Financial Modeling Mastery looks like a lot to me, though. Considering that I already passed CFA Level I, and my aim is to gain deeper and more practical knowledge about accounting and valuing companies, what would be an effective way for me to study the materials? Could it be trying to finish the -before Excel files while following the notes/guides instead of the videos?

    I also have a career related question that I’d love to hear your thoughts. I have a somewhat odd background: dual Bachelor degrees in Econ & CS, Master’s in CS; have been a data scientist at a small company for more than a year since graduation. However, I want to transition to something that is more business oriented. I know my chance for IB is probably cooked, so I wonder if there are some niches of jobs on the buy-side, corporate strategy or corp dev where I have reasonably good odds if I emphasize my Econ and CFA I background to offset the lack of relevant experience. Thanks!

    1. Thanks. So you don’t need to finish everything or close to everything in the course. You could finish 15-20% of it and still be well-prepared for interviews. I would recommend following the 20-hour study plan in the first lesson of the course, and if you have more time than that, follow the 3-week plan. Anything labeled “Advanced” or “More Advanced” is not relevant for interviews, and most of these case studies are very specialized.

      And yes, you can skip the videos and just look at the Excel files and notes and written guides to save time. The videos can be helpful for some of the trickier formulas and calculations, but are not necessary if you already know the main concepts and just want more practice.

      I think you might have a good chance at something on the corporate side, maybe in strategy, corporate finance, or even corporate development (but you’d probably have to work somewhere else at the company first and then transfer there). Another option might be to switch into a data science role at a larger company and then use that to move into one of these other roles.

      And potentially, you could still get into IB at this stage, but you would probably need another Master’s degree (in Finance) or maybe a massive networking effort to win a role at a smaller firm first. I’m not sure that’s worth it, especially if you take a pay cut in the process, but it is possible if you’re willing to put in that amount of effort.

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