by Brian DeChesare Comments (45)

What’s in a Confidential Information Memorandum (CIM)?

Do you need strong writing skills to succeed in finance?

Not necessarily, but they certainly help.

But you definitely need strong reading comprehension skills, or you’ll miss crucial information and make the wrong decisions as a result.

Both of these skills intersect in the confidential information memorandum (CIM) that investment banks prepare for clients – the same CIM that you’ll be spending a lot of time reading in private equity, corporate development, and other buy-side roles.

There is surprisingly little information out there on what goes into a CIM, and there’s a lot of confusion over how you write one and how you read and interpret a CIM.

So here’s the full run-down, from how they are used in investment banking to private equity and beyond – along with a bunch of real-life CIMs:

What is a CIM?

The Confidential Information Memorandum is part of the sell-side M&A process at investment banks. It’s also known as the Offering Memorandum (OM) and Information Memorandum (IM), among other names.

At the beginning of any sell-side M&A process, you’ll gather information on your client (the company that has hired you to sell it), including its products and services, financials, and market.

You turn this information into many documents, including a shorter, 5-10 page “Executive Summary” or “Teaser,” and then a more in-depth, 50+ page “Confidential Information Memorandum.”

You start by sending the Teaser to potential buyers; if someone expresses interest, you’ll have the firm sign an NDA, and then you’ll send more detailed information about your client, including the CIM.

You can write CIMs for debt deals, as well as for distressed M&A and restructuring deals where your bank is advising the debtor.

You might write a short memo for equity deals, but not an entire CIM.

The Order and Contents of a Confidential Information Memorandum

The structure of a CIM varies by firm and group, but it usually contains these sections:

1) Overview and Key Investment Highlights

2) Products and Services

3) Market

4) Sales & Marketing

5) Management Team

6) Financial Results and Projections

7) Risk Factors (Sometimes omitted)

8) Appendices

Debt-related CIMs will include the proposed terms – interest rates, interest rate floors, maturity, covenants, etc. – and details on how the company plans to use the funding.

What a Confidential Information Memorandum is NOT

First and foremost, a CIM is NOT a legally binding contract.

It is a marketing document intended to make a company look as shiny as possible.

Bankers apply copious makeup to companies, and they can make even the ugliest duckling look like a perfectly shaped swan.

But it’s up to you to go beneath the dress and see what it looks like without the makeup and the plastic surgery.

Second, there is also nothing on valuation in the CIM.

Investment banks don’t want to “set the price” at this stage of the process – they would rather let potential buyers place bids and see where they come in.

Finally, a CIM is NOT a pitch book. Here’s the difference:

Pitch Book: “Hey, if you hire us to sell your company, we could get a great price for you!”

CIM: “You’ve hired us. We’re now in the process of selling your company. Here’s how we’re pitching it to potential buyers and getting you a good price.”

Why Do CIMs Matter in Investment Banking?

You will spend a lot of time writing CIMs as an analyst or associate in investment banking.

And in buy-side roles, you will spend a lot of time reading CIMs and deciding which opportunities are worth pursuing.

People like to obsess over modeling skills and technical wizardry, but in most finance roles you spend FAR more time on administrative tasks such as writing CIMs (or reading and interpreting CIMs).

In investment banking, you might start marketing your client without creating a complex model first (Why bother if no one wants to buy the company?).

And in buy-side roles, you might look at thousands of potential deals but reject 99% of them early on because they don’t meet your investment criteria, or because the math doesn’t work.

You spend a lot of time reviewing documents and comparatively less time on in-depth modeling until the deal advances quite far.

So you must be familiar with CIMs if your job involves pitching or evaluating deals.

Show Me the Confidential Information Memorandum Example!

To give you a sense of what a CIM looks like, I’m sharing six (6) samples, along with a CIM template and checklist:

To find more examples, Google “confidential information memorandum” or “offering memorandum” or “CIM” plus the company name, industry name, or geography you are seeking.

Picking an Example CIM to Analyze

To illustrate how you might write a CIM as a banker and how you might interpret a CIM in buy-side roles, let’s take a look at the one above for Consolidated Utility Services (CUS).

This one has the standard sections, though it omits the Risk Factors and Appendices, resulting in a somewhat shorter (!) length of 58 pages.

This CIM is ancient, so I feel comfortable sharing it and explaining how I would evaluate the company.

CIM Investment Banking: How Do You Create Them?

This CIM creation process is quite tedious for bankers because it consists of a lot of copying and pasting from other sources.

You’ll spend 90% of your “thinking time” on just two sections: the Executive Summary / Investment Highlights in the beginning and the Financial Performance part toward the end.

You may do additional research on the industry and the company’s competitors, but you’ll get much of this information from your client; if you’re working at a large bank, you can also ask someone to pull up IDC or Gartner reports.

Similarly, you won’t write much original content on the company’s products and services or its management team: you get these details from other sources and then tweak them in your document.

The Executive Summary section takes time and energy because you need to think about how to position the company to potential buyers.

You attempt to demonstrate the following points:

  • The company’s best days lie ahead of it. There are strong growth opportunities, plenty of ways to improve the business, and right now is the best time to acquire the company.
  • The company’s sales are growing at a reasonable clip (an average annual growth rate of at least 5-10%), its EBITDA margins are decent (10-20%), and it has relatively low CapEx and Working Capital requirements, resulting in substantial Free Cash Flow generation and EBITDA to FCF conversion.
  • The company is a leader in a fast-growing market and has clear advantages over its competitors. There are high switching costs, network effects, or other “moat” factors that make the company’s business defensible.
  • It has an experienced management team that can sail the ship through stormy waters and turn things around before an iceberg strikes.
  • There are only small risks associated with the company – a diversified customer base, high recurring revenue, long-term contracts, and so on, all demonstrate this point.

If you turn to “Transaction Considerations” on page 10, you can see these points in action:


“Top-Performing, Geographically Diverse Industry Leader” means “less risk” – hopefully.

Then the bank lists the industry’s attractive growth rates, the company’s blue-chip customers (even lower risk), and its growth opportunities, all in pursuit of the five points above.

The “Financial Performance” Section of the CIM

The “Financial Performance” section also takes up a lot of time because you have to “dress up” a company’s financial statements… without outright lying.

So it’s not as easy as pasting in the company’s historical financial statements and then making simple projections – think “reasonable spin.”

Here are a few examples of “spin” in this CIM:

    • Only Two Years of Historical Statements – You normally like to see at least 3-5 years’ worth of performance, so perhaps the bankers showed only two years because the growth rates or margins were lower in the past, or because of acquisitions or divestitures.


  • Recurring Revenue / Contract Spin – The bankers repeatedly point to the high renewal rates, but if you look at the details, you’ll see that a good percentage of these contracts were won via “competitive bidding processes,” i.e. the revenue was by no means locked in. They also spin the lost customers in a positive way by claiming that many of those lost accounts were unprofitable.
  • Flat EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Spin – EBITDA stayed the same at $6.9 million in the past two historical years, but the bankers spin this by saying that it remained “stable” despite significantly higher fuel costs… glossing over the fact that revenue increased by 8%. Figures like “Adjusted EBITDA” also lend themselves to spin since the adjustments are discretionary and are chosen to make a company look better.
  • Highly Optimistic Projected Financials – They’re expecting revenue to grow by 7.5% each year, and EBITDA to increase from $8.3 million to $12.6 million over the next five years – despite no EBITDA growth in the last historical year.


As a banker, your job is to create this spin and portray the company favorably without going overboard.

Does Any of This Make a Difference?

Yes and no.

Buyers will always do their due diligence and confirm or refute everything in the CIM before acquiring the company.

But the way bankers position the company makes a difference in terms of which buyers are interested and how far they advance in the process.

Just as with M&A deals, bankers tend to add more value in unusual situations – divestitures, distressed/turnaround deals, sales of family-owned private businesses, and so on.

Example: In a sell-side divestiture deal, the subsidiary being sold is always dependent on the parent company to some extent.

But in the CIM, bankers have to take care with how they describe the subsidiary.

If they say, “It could easily stand on its own, no problem!” then more private equity buyers might show an interest in the deal and submit bids.

But if the PE firms find out that the bankers were exaggerating, they might drop out of the process very quickly.

On the other hand, if the bankers say that it will take significant resources to turn the subsidiary into an independent company, the deal might never happen due to a lack of interest from potential buyers.

So it’s a careful balancing act between hyping up the company and admitting its flaws.

How Do You Read and Interpret the Confidential Information Memorandum in Private Equity and Other Buy-Side Roles?

You will receive A LOT of CIMs in most private equity roles, especially at middle-market and smaller funds.

So you need a way to skim them and make a decision in 10-15 minutes about whether to reject the company upfront or keep reading.

I would recommend these steps:

  1. Read the first few pages of the Executive Summary to learn what the company does, how big it is in terms of sales, EBITDA, cash flow, etc., and understand its industry. You might be able to reject the company right away if it doesn’t meet your investment criteria.
  2. Then, skip to the financials at the end. Look at the company’s revenue growth, EBITDA margins, CapEx and Working Capital requirements, and how closely FCF tracks with EBITDA. The financial projections tend to be highly optimistic, so if the math doesn’t work with these numbers, chances are it will never work in real life.
  3. If the deal math seems plausible, skip to the market/industry overview section and look at the industry growth rates, the company’s competitors, and what this company’s USP (unique selling proposition) Why do customers pick this company over competitors? Does it compete on service, features, specializations, price, or something else?
  4. If everything so far has checked out, then you can start reading about the management team, the customer base, the suppliers, and the actual products and services. If you make it to this step, you might spend anywhere from one hour to several hours reading those sections of the CIM.

Applying the Analysis in Real Life

Here’s you might apply these steps to this memo for a quick analysis of CUS:

First Few Pages: It’s a utility services company with around $57 million in revenue and $9 million in EBITDA; the asking price is likely between $75 million and $100 million with those stats, though you’d need to look at comparable company analysis to be sure.


There has been solid revenue and EBITDA growth historically, but the company was formed via a combination of smaller companies so it’s hard to separate organic vs. inorganic growth.

At this point, you might be able to reject the company based on your firm’s investment criteria: for example, if you only look at companies with at least $100 million in revenue, or you do not invest in the services sector, or you do not invest in “roll-ups,” you would stop reading the CIM.

There are no real red flags yet, but it does seem like customers are price-sensitive (“…price is generally one of the most important factors to the customer”), which tends to be a negative sign.

Financials at the End: You can skip to page 58 now because if the deal math doesn’t work with management’s highly optimistic numbers, it definitely won’t work with realistic numbers.

Let’s say your fund targets a 5-year IRR of 20% and expects to use a 5x leverage ratio for deals in this size range.

The company is already levered at ~2x Debt / EBITDA, so you can only add 3x Debt / EBITDA.

If you do the rough math for this scenario and assume a $75 million purchase price:

A $75 million purchase enterprise value represents a ~9x EV / EBITDA multiple, with 3x of additional debt and 2x for existing debt, which implies an equity contribution of 4x EBITDA (~$33 million).

If you re-sell the company in five years for the same 9x EBITDA multiple, that’s an Enterprise Value of ~$113 million (9x * $12.6 million)… but how much debt will need to be repaid at that point?

To answer that, we need the company’s Free Cash Flow projections… which are not shown anywhere.

However, we can estimate its Free Cash Flow with Net Income + D&A – CapEx and then assume the working capital requirements are low (i.e., that the Change in Working Capital as a percentage of the Change in Revenue is relatively low).

If you do that, you’ll get figures of $3.9, $3.6, $3.8, $4.5, and $5.1 million from 2007 through 2011, which adds up to $21 million of cumulative FCF.


But remember that the interest expense will be significantly higher with 5x leverage rather than 2x leverage, so we should probably reduce the sum of the cumulative FCFs to $10-$15 million to account for that.

Initially, the company will have around $42 million in debt.

By Year 5, it will have repaid $10-15 million of that debt with its cumulative FCF generation. We’ll split the difference and call it $12.5 million.

At a 9x EV / EBITDA exit multiple, the PE firm gets proceeds of $113 million – ($42 million – $12.5 million), or ~$84 million, upon exit, which equates to a 5-year IRR of 20% and a 2.5x cash-on-cash multiple.

I would reject the company at this point.


  • Even with optimistic assumptions – the same EBITDA exit multiple and revenue and EBITDA growth above historical numbers – the IRR looks to be around 20%, which is just barely within your firm’s desired range. And with a lower exit multiple or more moderate growth, the IRR drops below 20%.
  • The EBITDA growth looks fine, but FCF generation is weak due to the company’s relatively high CapEx, which limits debt repayment capacity.
  • It seems like the company doesn’t have much pricing power, since quite a few contracts were renewed via a “competitive bid cycle process.” Low pricing power means it will be harder to maintain or improve margins.

On the other hand, you might look at this document and interpret it completely differently.

The numbers don’t seem spectacular for a standalone investment, but this company could represent an excellent “roll-up” opportunity because there are tons of smaller companies offering similar utility services in different regions (see “Pursue Additional Add-on Acquisitions” on page 14) (for more, see our tutorial to bolt-on acquisitions).


So if your firm focuses on roll-ups, then perhaps this deal would look more compelling.

And then you would read the rest of the confidential information memorandum, including the sections on the industry, competitors, management team, and more.

You would also do a lot of research on how many smaller competitors could be acquired, and how much it would cost to do so.

What Next?

These examples should give you a flavor of what to expect when you write a confidential information memorandum in investment banking, or when you read and interpret CIMs in private equity.

I’m not going to say, “Now write a 100-page CIM for practice!” because I don’t think such an exercise is helpful – at least, not unless you want to practice the Ctrl + C and Ctrl + V commands.

So here’s what I’ll recommend instead:

  1. Pick an example CIM from the list above, or Google your way into a CIM for a different company.
  2. Then, look at the Executive Summary and Financial Performance sections and find the 5-10 key areas where the bankers have “dressed up the company” and spun it in a positive light.
  3. Finally, pretend you’re at a private equity firm and follow the decision-making process I outlined above. Take 20 minutes to scan the document and either reject the company or keep reading the CIM.

Bonus points if you can locate typos, grammatical errors, or other attention-to-detail failures in the memo you pick.

Any questions?

Want more?

You might be interested in a detailed tutorial on investment banking PowerPoint shortcuts.

About the Author

Brian DeChesare is the Founder of Mergers & Inquisitions and Breaking Into Wall Street. In his spare time, he enjoys lifting weights, running, traveling, obsessively watching TV shows, and defeating Sauron.

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Read below or Add a comment

  1. Hi Brian. I notice that the Debt IMs barely have any financial forecasts/projections (the vast majority of financials are historical), while all the M&A ones have them. Perhaps it reflects the fact that M&A involves much more modeling than DCM, isn’t it?

    1. I don’t really think that’s it. The style of debt IMs is just different, and while DCM has far less modeling work than M&A, that’s mostly because DCM is a markets role that mostly consists of updating slides and interacting with other groups at the bank. There may be some requirement that debt IMs do not show projections as well (not sure about that).

  2. Hi Brian,

    Great article.

    I’m in the process of applying to PE and LevFin/Credit firms (Ireland).

    I was informed that the final recruitment stage in these often includes a CIM analysis.

    I was wondering how would you alter the analysis steps that you outlined above for a LevFin/Credit firm? I’m assuming it would be quite different since you’re looking much more at the chances of the company surviving if you leverage it up.


    1. Focus more on the downside and extreme downside cases and see if the company can survive even if revenue drops by 50%+, or some other very high level. The base and upside cases don’t really matter because there’s no additional benefit to creditors in those.

  3. Dibyang Arora

    Hey Brian, great article as always- I really appreciate it.

    Do you happen to have access to other old CIMs you could link? Thanks!

    1. Everything we have is linked to here.

  4. OMG this website, and the articles are great! Concrete and detailed:)

    1. Thanks for reading!

  5. FYI: Was interested in your free 57 pager, but the link is not working for me even after inputting my name, valid email address and checking the box..others may be experiencing a similar problem, just a heads-up, cheers.

    1. I am not sure about that one – the link seemed to work when I just tried it. You can email us to download it if the form is still not working.

  6. Piyush Parikh

    The Article was very helpful. Thanks for putting it up. I am a CPA from India and trying my hand at a very small equity cum debt infusion in a company. Thanks once again.

    1. Thanks for reading!

  7. For the assumption of 75-100 mil, how do we know if the assumption makes sense or not.
    Is there a reference range for that if we are given different revenue or EBITDA figures?

    1. Just our own estimate based on average multiples in the sector.

  8. Hey Brian,

    Great article. However just wanted to make a small correction. At the end you used $21 million of FCF generated over 5 years to pay down $12.5 million of debt, which is fine, but you didn’t add the remaining FCF of $8.5 million in calculation of the ending equity value. The Ending Equity will then be $113mn – ($42.5 mn – $12.5mn) + $8.5mn = $91.5mn instead of the mentioned $84mn. This would bump up the multiple to 2.77x and IRR of 23%. Your point still stands though.

  9. Aqeel Ahamad

    Thank you so much Brian for this article.

    I have learned a lot about investment banking from your articles.

    I would urge you to please share one more video for writing an industry report/power point presentation skills on how to create the attractive diagrams (However, I have seen two of your videos on ppt skills).

    Also is there any video/article on competitive benchmarking, trading & transaction comps and market sizing.

    Once again thank you so much for your contribution towards learning.

    1. We have a full course on PowerPoint if you want to learn more. Our modeling courses cover some of the other topics. Beyond that, we may create more YouTube videos, but there is only so much we’ll give away for free (why would anyone ever sign up for the paid courses if we just gave away everything?).

  10. Thanks so much Brian. You are very generous and humble.

  11. Warren C.

    Hello Brian: I’m in greater Boston (to the south) I’m currently seeking assistance creating a CIM for a low-end mid-market business, very well-established and growing fast, 2016 revenue $15.5MM, 2017 ~$20MM.
    Ideally, I want to have some actual interaction with the person. Can you suggest the best way to find such a person. I’m seeking to find a person with talent who reads stuff your for enjoyment. Thank you kindly. W,

    1. We do not advise on the creation of CIMs. I would recommend contacting boutique banks in your area and requesting the services of one who creates CIMs for small businesses.

    2. Hi Warren, feel free to touch base with me at MidCap Advisors. I’d be happy to help any way I can.

  12. Thanks Brian, another great insider perspective on the important financial documents – as a marketer helping clients to sell deals or launch new offerings it’s been hard making sense of some of the investment terminology – your site has been a big help, and I’ve just signed up for the powerpoint course which looks fantastic – again I used powerpoint all day but mostly for webinars and video presentations, so getting the more formal and structured elements right for a pitch deck was something I needed some expert insight on and I came to the right place.
    Great work!

    1. Thanks for signing up!

  13. From buyside’s perspective, what’s a relatively low CapEx and Working Capital requirements that’s good for possible investment? Does it depend on the industry? If so, what are those numbers for various industries?

    Also when you mentioned watch “how closely FCF tracks with EBITDA” what do you mean by that? Can you show an example?


    1. Your questions are beyond the scope of what we can answer here, but, broadly speaking, lower capital requirements are better because they make the company’s cash flow higher, meaning it can pay off more debt and generate more cash. The exact numbers differ greatly based on industry and company stage. If FCF follows EBITDA closely it’s easier to estimate the investment returns because you can use EBITDA as a proxy for debt pay-down/cash generation.

  14. Pedro Santos

    Would you advise to write the Executive Summary of the CIM as early as possible or would you wait until all sections of the CIM are covered to extract the Exec Summary?

    1. Write a draft of the summary section, then the rest of the CIM, and then come back and revise the summary.

  15. Being a former banker and a recent PE joinee, this hits bang on the spot. Brings back my memories of the CIM prep (we generally refer to it as IM in India) with other fellow associates, sitting late into the night, chatting, fighting (even on points like font sizes) and positioning the company, taking pride in our work till the next day the VP turns and asks to completely re-draft the whole thing.. to the stage where it satisfies the VP.. but the Partner then turning back and requesting you to again change the IM with the final version resembling close to the one that you had originally prepared. Man.. those were the days..

    1. Thanks! Yes, CIM prep is always fun… until you find out you have to re-do the whole thing, and then re-do it again when someone else gets pissed off. And then you realize it doesn’t matter since no one reads it anyway.

  16. What documents are significant for IB/PE/Corp Dev?

    CIMs, Pitch Books, Letters of Intents, Definitive Agreements, Business Plans, Term Sheets, Private Placement Memos, Prospectus, Credit Memos, etc…?

    Did I leave out anything?

    1. Those are the main ones. Management Presentations are also important (condensed and more visual/impactful version of a CIM that’s intended for management teams to use when pitching their company).

  17. Investment Banker

    Brian, great article with valuable Information. Yep all-niters are not very uncommon when drafting CIMs and the work with the right version is even more challenging (with a lot of remarks). Back in my days when I started in IB word was the dominating source for making CIMs, in recent years it has shifted to ppt (at least in Europe).

    1. Thanks! Yes, it seems like PowerPoint is more common for CIMs in Europe. Not sure why – maybe just higher design standards?

      1. Guess that would be one of the reasons.

        Also, IMO, i guess that PPT features such as headers and the possibility to split extensive topics in more slides (still following the same rationale, of course) make the reading so much easier than in MS Word…guess that a more dynamic and straight to the point CIM is always the best option when you’re looking for a specific data

        Great text, btw

  18. Jack Nguyen

    Great post as always Brian! I have followed the site since I first entered university 3 years ago. Very valuable source of information! It contributed greatly to me breaking into IB as an M&A Associate. And with the stuff I read now becomes one I practice..having a Déjà vu reading this.

    Thank you for your generosity in sharing these information Brian, keep up the good work.

    1. Thanks, glad to hear it! Yes, after a while you start dreaming about CIMs..

  19. Funny to notice that all CIMs are in word format. Correct me if I’m wrong, but I think this is more common in the US. In my short 1 year experience in Europe (London), I’ve only seen CIMs on powerpoint.
    Have to agree with KG, in ppt you can make more visually appealing and especially spend less time on wording and rephrasing.

    Great article again, learning lots of stuff reading M&I as a student and still now as an analyst!

    1. Thanks! Yes, you’re right that CIMs in Word format are more common in the US. But even in other countries, Word is still quite common (see the example above fore that bank in Iceland). PowerPoint-formatted CIMs do likely take up a greater percentage of the total, though.

  20. It’s interesting how CIMs in the U.S. seem dull, and are rather ugly. In Canada, IPO CIMs in particular, are rather slim and colourful, and make us push the boundaries of what you can achieve with PowerPoint and Excel charts. They are mostly targeted at retail and HNW financial advisors with short attention spans, but, by law, they can’t state anything that is not in the prospectus.

    I can think of 2-3 bulge bracket banks that take good care in making these marketing documents appealing, and in some groups at my bank, they have become bona fide masterpieces in Microsoft Office graphic design and the ability to distill the essence of entire paragraphs of information into single bullet points.

    Since I started making them I realized that obsessing over presentation and clarity in writing my own resume was perfect training for this type of work, and that investors and/or their advisors look at new deals similarly to how recruiters look at resumes.

    1. Yup that is true, but I think you pinpointed the reason why right there: IPOs are often aimed at retail and HNW advisers, not private equity firms or corporate development teams at Fortune 500 companies. So inevitably there will be more attention-grabbing features and the design will look better.

      Also, for IPOs often the nitty-gritty details matter a bit less because no one is buying 100% of the company… so there may be more focus on the design instead of detailed financial analysis.

    2. Thanks for pointing this out – I’ve been surprised at how boring these are because it seems like an easy place to differentiate and get attention – although obviously you need to be taken seriously too.
      Can you point to some example Canadian CIMs to compare KG?

  21. Great read. Keep it going

  22. This is a great read. As a a former IB guy, this hits so close to home I am getting flashbacks to the CIM drafting sessions I had for the deals I worked on (for deals closes and those that stalled out). Would recommend other people interested in going into the field to read this article (or even exiting the field to buyside)….

    1. Thanks! Glad to hear it. Yes, late-night CIM sessions are always a good time…

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